Specific U.S. sense of "organized self-governing region not yet a state" is from 1799. Of regions defended by animals from 1774.
1795, in specific sense of "government intimidation during the Reign of Terror in France" (March 1793-July 1794), from French terrorisme, noted in English by 1795 as a coinage of the Revolution
If the basis of a popular government in peacetime is virtue, its basis in a time of revolution is virtue and terror -- virtue, without which terror would be barbaric; and terror, without which virtue would be impotent. [Robespierre, speech in French National Convention, 1794]
General sense of "systematic use of terror as a policy" is first recorded in English 1798 (in reference to the Irish Rebellion of that year).
in the modern sense, 1944, especially in reference to Jewish tactics against the British in Palestine -- earlier it was used of extremist revolutionaries in Russia who attempted to demoralize the government by terror (1866); and Jacobins during the French Revolution (1795) -- from French terroriste; see terror + -ist (also see terrorism).
The tendency of one party's terrorist to be another's guerilla or freedom fighter was noted in reference to the British action in Cyprus (1956) and the war in Rhodesia (1973). The word terrorist has been applied, at least retroactively, to the Maquis resistance in occupied France in World War II (as in in the "Spectator," Oct. 20, 1979).
Чувашляндию прихватизировали примерно в 1825-х. К 1850-м вышли в Черное море и схлестнулись франко-англо-турками . В районе 1870-90-х продвижение в Среднюю Азию.
А пока не пришли в Среднюю Азию отмечали на картах "Независимая территория" и т.д.
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