May 19, 2019 #^https://scan1707.blogspot.com/2019/05/blog-post.html
Translated by Berenkova Violetta Michailovna
THE DRUG-DEALING APPROVAL IN THE PAST
Below numerous antinarcotic data are presented, however, it is necessary to understand that it is only one side of the coin, and secondary at that.
The group of alkaloids includes a lot of curatives - from coca, opium, hashish and even from tobacco. We are inclined to be angry, when we see adverts of the 19 century with opium infusions against cough for children, however, some opiates really treat cough and not only cough.
Without anesthesia, surgical intervention may cause a patient’s shock and death. In the past, the overwhelming majority of death cases after wounds happened due to shock, and opium used to be the only anesthetic known in Europe up to the middle of the 19 century.
All antidotes contained theriac – opium wine tincture, and it was the right decision: at least, it had a placebo effect: to the patient felt better, and the person started to believe that he would recover. Nevertheless, there is also one more circumstance: speaking about medieval poisoning cases, we already see a picture in our heads: a malicious sorcerer pours toxin in soup, and this picture is doubtful. Up to 1880s there were no effective toxins, and almost all poisoning cases, in which doctors prescribed alkaloids, had not criminal character. Moreover, they happened really often.
Primarily, the author means poisoning with telluric gases and volcanic products as the result of earthquakes during those epoch when Europe was covered, for example, with clouds of ashes drifting from Iceland. People died not only because of chemical burns (lungs, first of all) and lesions of basal ganglia; the most different areas of the nervous system suffered, and in such situations to do without some alkaloids meant to increase the cases of lethal outcomes in tens percent in a short period of time.
The theme of dangerous natural disasters requires separate large research, but now it is necessary to assume the fact that the mass confidence of our ancestors that smoking or even narcotic “a feast in time of plague” helped to survive had been found to be substantiated.
Formal responsibility of doctors, chemists and the authorities for narcotism began not earlier than 1880s, when for the first time there appeared understanding with what they, actually, dealt. The beginning of actual responsibility is more reasonable to be related to 1909 – the year when the Shanghai opium commission took up responsibility for all volume of the consequences for the first time.
Everything that was earlier, is history - such as it is.
INCENSE AND LABDANUM
Words are extremely similar, and in 2011 the basic definitions looked as so:
Incense - dried juice of plants of Boswellia sort … selected incense - Olibanum electum and ordinary incense - Olibanum in sortis.
Labdanum (Ladanum, Laudanum, Ledanum, Ladbdanum, La ` danon, Lh ` danon, Lh^don) is tincture, laudanum infusion in alcohol (1).
That is, incense in Latin is Olibanum, and opium - Ladanum.
In the dictionary by Lewis-Short, 1879, Ladanum (2) is determined as incense, and this definition allowed the author to assert that historically opium and incense meant the same thing. In fact, the dictionary definitions demonstrate the process of substitution of definitions. At first, incense (alias opium) had the name “Ladanum”. Then the opium part in the incense was reduced due to the addition of aromatic oils (Olibanum), and, eventually, only Olibanum is finally put in incensories - and so it should be named in dictionaries now. The term “ladanum” remains only in pharmaceutical business.
In 2019 the number of contradictory definitions has considerably grown.
In English Wikipedia Laudanum is tincture of opium (3).
In Russian Wikipedia Laudanum is opium infusion in alcohol. In a more comprehensive sense it is medicine which formulation includes opium (4).
Thus, in English Wikipedia five different words are equalized - Labdanum, ladanum, laudanum, ladan, ladanon (5), - all of them mean resins of plants Cistus ladanifer and Cistus creticus which are the source of incense production today.
In German Wikipedia the terms Ladanum, Labdanum and Laudanum mean the same: resin of Cistus creticus which is now the basis of incense preparation (6).
As a whole, linguistic connection of opium and incense has grown. In 2011 these two substances were bound only with the word Ladanum, and now also with the word Laudanum.
WHAT SUBSTANCE INCENSE WAS EARLIER
Incense means a dialogue between a person and god (7).
Valeriana is the cat's incense (cats love it, mew, behave like a fool and get madden because of it) (8).
Here is the title page of the book dedicated to the history of Indians with the report of Jesuit José Acosta about coca production in 1571. Round a poppy head, we see the citation from Psalm 86 “fundamenta eius in montibus santis” (Its foundations [are] in the Holy Mountains).
And here is an icon “Madonna with a poppy” (1325) painted by Paolo Veneziano. It is necessary to remember, that it was exactly through Venetians that the Egyptian opium (in a theriac form, wine solution) passed to Europe. It may be supposed, this icon belonged to the family controlling the traffic.
“Contemporary church incense”, - as authors of encyclopaedic articles write, - “has little in common with Ladanum resin”. Here a good citation: “Christianity has strongly increased the incense brand et, though in modern rituals substitutes are mainly used. In the European countries the question has already been brought up concerning the possibility of restrictions for children presence at religious ceremonies with active incenses burning because of suspicion about procancerogenic effect” (9). Therefore, manufacturers have also switched to Cistus plant group.
It is related to incense and smýrna; it is known in two fractions one of which (liquid, tincture) is translated in the Church Slavonic dictionary as incense. These two substances are prepared today from identical resins. “Myrrh and aloes, cassia! all thy garments, Out of palaces of ivory Stringed instruments have made thee glad.» (Psaltir, 44, 9 / 45, 8?). It is smýrna that traditionally is used during a funeral ceremony, - according to the citation from Psaltir, as it treats grief.
Its semantic relative is myrrh (Balsamea Myrrha). It is main (and top-secret) goods of Christian monks from the Egyptian Babylonia (there, where Maria bathed baby Jesus in Al-Matariyyah). Before occupation of Egypt by early Moslems this “balm” grew in Egypt everywhere, and after change of power - only on monastic lands. For the attempt to take “balm” through boundary posts of the Babylon Sultanate it was possible to lose a head. Moslems were not admitted to gathering of the “balm” - under that pretext that this plant did not love them. Particularly in Al-Matariyyah the “balm groove” was destroyed during disorders of 1496-1497, and the permission to restoration of this business and wasn’t received, - at first, the Moslems were not permitted even to smoke.
It is important that one of magicians, who, besides the gold, brought to Jesus смирну and incense, was the Ethiopian. Even nowadays, the Ethiopian Rastafarians consider intake of soft drugs as an integral part of their religious ritual. Egypt kept superiority in the opium delivery to Europe for an extremely long period; descriptions of plantations were preserved on which women and children gathered “poppy juice” with special iron spoons (10).
Here is an interesting illustration symbolising Asia (at that time that was the right bank of the Nile, and Al-Matariyyah was just the right bank) with the African giraffes, rhinoceroses, elephants and … incenses burning.
The author should recognize that the description of Babylon balm groves in Al-Matariyyah do not resemble the description of opium poppy plantation. After all, not because of aromatic resin people lost their heads? And in the history of drugs there are a lot of white spots. Here Plinius results a fragment from Democritus about a plant - thalassaegle or potamaugis. Pleasant in drinking, it invokes delirium with freakish illusions of rather unusual character. This thaengelis, - he told, - grows on a grief Libanus in Syria, on the mountain ridge of Dikti in Crete, and also in Babylon and in Susa in Persia. Its infusion allocates magicians with ability to prediction. The same effect is also noted for gelotophyllis - a plant found in Bactria and on the slopes of Borisfen. Taken in with myrrh and wine, it causes halutinations, invoking the most excessive laughter.
The toponym “Libanus” is suspicious itself – it reminds word Olibanum very much meaning church incense for divine service. Moreover, it grows in Babylon, stimulaqtes abilities to prediction, and dissolved in wine causes excessive laughter. It is necessary to remember what is told about smýrna in Psaltir: “… have made thee glad …”
1. Степаненко, А. Г. Истории больше нет. Величайшие исторические подлоги, ЭКСМО 2011. (Stepanenko A.G. Stories does not exist anymore more. The greatest historical forgeries, ЭКСМО 2011.)
2. Charlton T. Lewis; Charles Short , A Latin Dictionary; Founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary (Trustees of Tufts University, Oxford)
4. Википедия. Лауданум
7. Словарь символов. 2000.
8. Даль. Словарь Даля. 2012.
10. Исаев И. Ю. "Зов бездны. Мистические механизмы наркомании"
WHAT WAS DRUNK, CHEWED AND SNUFED UNDER THE TOBACCO NAME
Here are 47 synonyms of the term “tobacco” (11).
Petun - Petun (fr.)
Herbe pétun - herb pétun
Butun - Butun (a Breton variant of the word)
Herbe Catharinae - Catherina's herb
Catherinaire - Catherina
Médicée - Medici
Herbe a la reine - herb of the queen
L'herbe à la Reine - herb of the queen
Herbe de la reine - herb of the queen
Herbe reginae - herb of the queen
Poudre a la reine - powder of the queen
Heilige Kraut - holy herb (sage)
Herbe sainte - Holy herb, Glyceria (manna grass, gramineous)
Herbe à ambassadeur - ambassadorial herb
Herbe a l'ambassadeur - ambassadorial herb
Herbe de l'ambassadeur - ambassadorial herb
Herbe à tous les maux - herb from all evils (illnesses)
Herbe à tous maux - herb from all evils (illnesses)
Herbe angoulmoisine - Angoulême herb
Petum Angoulmoisine - Angoulême Petun
Herbe du grand prieur - Herb of Great Prior
Herbe de Monsieur Le Prieur - herb of Monsieur Prior
Herbe de Sainte-Croix - Herb of the Holy Cross
Herbe de Ternabon - herb of Ternabon
Tarnabonne - Ternabon
Tornabonne - Ternabon
Herbe nicotiane - nicotinic herb
Herbe nicotiniane - nicotinic herb
Nicotiane - nicotiane
Tabac vrai-nicotiane - truly nicotinic tobacco
Herbe sacrée - sacral herb
Jusquiame du Pérou - Peruvian henbane
Tabac du Perou - Peruvian tobacco
Panacee americaine - American panacea
Panacée antarctique - Antarctic panacea
Panacee aromatique - aromatic panacea
Pontiane - Pontiane
Tabac a larges feuilles - broad-leaved tobacco
Tabac commun - ordinary tobacco
Tabac de Floride - Floridian Tobacco
Tabac male – Male Tobacco
Tabac vrai - True Tobacco
Grand Tabac - Great Tobacco
Toubac - tobacco
Trefoin - Trefoin
Triffois - Trefoil
Tuffre - Tuffre
Tobacco is also a name for sage, Glyceria, and Ethiopians identified with tobacco the unknown herb that grew on the tomb of heresiarch Aria - 1200 before discovery of America. The part of names is taken from Grimoire of magic herbs, that is, they are psychedelics from the Old World, including the epoch of the Roman Empire. Overwhelming majority of these tobaccos they used for drinking, instead of smoking. In 1625 the Greek Orthodox Church asserted that the drunkard Noah fainted after intake of tobacco. The author presents the citation from the Old Russian life.
Old-rus. They drink tobacco (Гагара, 1634, p. 75), but also: to drink tobacco (Аввакум 124) (11).
There is a probability that Old Russian tobacco had Scythian origins, that is, it was hempseed infusion, analogue of Indian bhanga, - probably, it was the source of the expression “green wine”.
Henbane Peruvian and Panacea Antarctic are, certainly, coca. They write that Ekaterina Medici was cured for migraine by some “tobacco”. However original tobacco narrows blood vessels and, more likely, aggravates headache symptoms, but coca … could help in such case. In fact, coca can be brewed. The taste of the dried leaves of Erythroxylum coca, subspecies of Bolivian coca, resembles Chinese green tea. That is, this “tobacco” is not for smoking, but for drinking.
WHO AND WHEN HAS TAUGHT US TO SMOKE?
The central fact: 1860; according to the accounting records of Virginia and Northern Carolina (the heart of tobacco industry) of that time, in these states there were 348 factories manufacturing chewing tobacco, and only 6 of them produced smoking tobacco, as a by-product from waste of the basic production. That is, only 1.7 % of factories produced smoking tobacco; 98.3 % of output was oriented on the chewing one.
Smoking is in general an extremely exotic for a simple person way of drug intake.
Betel and coca are traditionally chewed.
In Russia in 1634 they drank tobacco.
In Turkish “to smoke” is determined with the same word as “to drink” – “içmek”. That is, Turks still go on “drinking” tobacco now. The reader lismoyle writes: “Tobacco is tütün in Turkish. “To smoke” - sigara içmek, literally - “to drink cigarettes”, but this is modern use, earlier it was tütün içmek, “to drink tobacco”. And the word “addicted” in Turkish is teryaki (theriac - the Venetian solution of opium in wine. Comment by А.S.)
Until the 20th century they used to drink tea with hashish in Bangladesh.
And now to drink tea with hashish is a common thing in Central Asia.
Traditionally people drank tea with hashish in India and Persia.
Until 1860 they manufactured mainly chewing tobacco.
In Central Asia and Scandinavia nasvay is chewed (instead of smoking) even now.
In southern Russia and in Ukraine in the first half of the 20th century they did not know anything about hemp smoking. But they knew perfectly well that hemp stupefied, but they did not smoke it.
In 1843 in Paris there was the Club of hashish eaters who ate hashish.
The first clear evidences of hashish smoking occured only in 1910-1920. Officials of the USA southern regions were disturbed by that the black jazz musicians smoking hashish had started “to consider themselves equal to white gentlemen”.
If smoking was indeed discovered by Indians, and Spaniards adopted it later, the history would be different. Careful research of the facts specifies for 1820s as at the beginning of smoking. Here is dynamics of consumption growth in the 19th century. In 1826 England imported 12 kg of cigars a year, and in 1830 - 114 tons. We see the growth in 9500 times! Here it is - real time of acquaintance to smoking. In the USA from 1901 to 1924 sale of cigarettes had grown in 21 times. The goods with 300-year-old history cannot have such “explosive” dynamics.
TOBACCO IN RUSSIA
And here is Russia, 1830. There was only snuff tobacco; it was produced by Zhukov's factory. 1837 is a crucial year: Zhukov produced 41 thousand poods of smoking and only 300 poods of snuff tobacco. 1843 - tobacco in St.-Petersburg is smoked both by men, and women, but it was not all so simple. A.F. Koni brand ed: “Till 60s passers-by do not smoke in the street, it is strictly forbidden”. In Kiev the first tobacco factory occurred only in 1861, and till July, 4th, 1865 smoking in the streets of Petersburg was a crime.
In the Gogol’s novel “Dead souls” Manilov is the only smoker, and it was 1842. Gogol used the word “smoking”, more likely, with a hint on psychedelics, than on the life style.
“He fumigated human eyes with delightful tobacco …
… either with pathetic speech, or with smoked flattery” …
These words are from Taras Bulba, 1842 as well.
The Cossacks smoked hard and smoked their fate. Some woke up bound in the enemy hands, others, without waking up at all, sleepy found their end …
... “The evil happened; but why it happened, whether the remained Zaporozhye Cossacks smoked hard, according to Cossacks custom, and drunk surrendered to captivity” …
THE GENERAL STATISTICS
Half of evidences concerning tobacco notice about “tobacco in general” or about “smoking in general”, without specifics. If to choose evidences with specifics, it appears that the tobacco industry went uphill only from 1840. And nevertheless we should remember, what even in 1860 in the heart of the tobacco industry of the world they manufactured chewing tobacco, and most probability it was, as well as snuff one, coca.
THE HISTORY OF CIGARS
Cigar was the first thing that Columbus saw in Cuba, however distinct data concerning production of cigars in America appered only from the middle of the 19th century. General impression: cigar tobacco got accustomed not so easily. Here below are the earliest evidences.
1717 - cigars were manufactured in Spain but not in Cuba.-
1799 – the tobacco manufactory Casa de Beneficiencia was opened in Havana. However, the very first mention of this brand that the author has found is dated on October 15th, 1844.
1810 - Francisco Cabañas registered the brand of cigars in Cuba.
1810 - Cuban cigar twister arrived in the USA to teach local workers.
1827 - the cigar brand Partagos was established in Cuba (the factory would open in 1845).
1842 - Brazil. The cigar factory Juventude was established.
1844 - German bankers established the cigar brand H. Upmann in Cuba.
1845 – the cigar factory Partagos was opened in Cuba - after 18 years of expectation.
1845 – the cigar brand La Corona was established in Cuba.
1845 – they got interested in tobacco business in Haiti.
1846 – the cigar brand Ramon Allones was established in Cuba.
1848 – the cigar brand El Rey del Mundo was established in Cuba.
1848 – the cigar brand Sancho Panza was established in Cuba.
1850 – the cigar brand Romeo Y Julieta was established in Cuba.
1851 - Brazil. Three companies were founded: Kosta- Peña, Dannemann and Suerdieck.
1852 – the first tobacco factory La Prueba de Balsa Hermanos was opened in the homeland of tobacco - in Mexico.
1863 – the USA. The first mention about local cigars - in connection with the excise.
1865 – the cigar brand Hoyo De Monterrey was established in Cuba - one of the oldest in the country.
1872 - Brazil. The immigrant from Germany established the cigar brand Dannemann.
1873 - the First Honduran tobacco factory Flor de Copan was open.
1875 - Romeo y Julieta was established. The famous brand was created by the Spaniard Don Inocêncio Alvarez inspired by the Shakespearean play in 1875. Though the brand got the present popularity in 1903, after its purchase by Don José Fernandez Rodriguez, “Don Pepin” as his friends called him, and his opening the factory “Romeo and Juliette” still acting now.
Please, pay attention, the brand Romeo y Julieta was created in 1875 for the second time - after 25 years of failure in the data.
1880 – the cigar brand Jose L Piedra was established in Cuba.
1880 – the factory Nueva Matacapan Tabacos was established in Mexico.
1882 – the cigar brand La Belinda was registered in Cuba.
1882 – the cigar brand El Rey del Mundo was founded in Cuba.
1883 – the USA. Oscar Hammerstejn invented the car for twisting of cigars.
1884– the cigar brand La Flor de Cano was registered in Cuba.
1885 - the Englishman established the cigar brand La Gloria Cubana in Cuba.
1886 - the first cigar factory appeared in Florida.
1900 - they started to grow cigar tobacco in Connecticut ( the USA).
The cigar business development started in 1845, basically, in Cuba. However until the Cuban technologies were not borrowed in the USA (1880), cigars were a rare whim of no public value. Here again it’s necessry to remember that in 1860 tobacco for smoking was of no interests in the USA; factories cut leaves of coca - for snuff and chewing tobacco. Nobody wrote directly about coca, but it is important that they kept absolute silence about the plantations where chewing and snuff tobacco was grown at this time. The official version: In the USA, they grew smoking tobacco, but there are no data about it at all. If speaking about raw material, at this time they grew only marihuana in the USA - in those “tobacco” states. There is a clear evidence: France and England grew marihuana for hashish production in colonies Port Royal (1606), Virginia (1611) and Plymouth (1632).
THE PRIMARY SOURCE OF SMOKING TRADITION
Production of cigars in Cuba was organised by natives from the Canary Islands (Africa), exactly in Africa (in Egypt and Ethiopia, first of all) burning - an organic part of aboriginal culture. Once again here is allegory of Asia which was on the right bank of the Nile.
It is necessary to add that officially the cigarette was invented in Egypt in 1832.
SOURCE OF SMOKING TOBACCO
Cultural tobacco is obtained by hybridization of two different kinds of tobacco - Nicotiana Silvestris and Nicotiana Tomentosiformis - this sort is extremely both fragile and vulnerable and degenerates instantly. Preservation of the sort is possible only due to indefatigable selection work. Moreover... the native land of Nicotiana Silvestris is Argentina, and the native land of Nicotiana Tomentosiformis - Peru and Bolivia.
Phytology, strictly adhering to the traditional historical version, are forced to assume that these two kinds were found, crossed also kept for centuries in a marketable condition by the nomad tribes. They delivered it at first to Brazil, then to Colombia and, at last, to Cuba where the cigar was seen by Christopher Columbus.
Summing all facts it is necessary to put forward a hypothesis that European selectors didn’t create cultural smoking tobacco until 1820s, and promotion of the new goods at the market took them approximately 40-60 years of intensive efforts.
Until 1820s tobacco was called as psychodelic mixtures for drink, chewing and snuffing.
11. Grimoire des herbes magiques (3e édition) 1998.
12. Этимологический словарь русского языка. Фасмер Макс
COCA - PERUVIAN TOBACCO (Tabac du Perou)
Coca is a very effective tonic. A person can work for days at the mine or be hiking, feeling neither weariness, nor hunger. Such goods was in great demand in the 19 century - in any kind. The Indians working on silver mines were primarily supplied with coca leaves.
You can drink, smoke, chew and snuff coca. Moreover, it is possible to smoke coca, at least, in two ways, and to drink - both in the form of tea, and in the form of alcoholature. The revolutionary Petrograd sailors were supplied with cocaine solution in alcohol – it is a very serious “energetic”.
In 1535 the bishop of Cuzco took tithing with coca. In 1571 Jesuit José Acosta estimated annual coca production in half-million of the Mexican dollars. And, nevertheless, except Indians of Peru, there were no any consumers coca from 1535 till 1863 in the history. One of the causes: coca was called differently at the market, for example, mate tea. Here is the graph with the following data: coca periodically disappears from the documents, and mate takes its place. Rows of dates supplement each other. The regularity is found by the friend prefgamer.
And, mate has at least three names: “mate de coca”, “yerba mate” and simple “mate”. “Mate de coca”, obviously, is not necessary to translate, and “yerba mate’ which is now translated as “mate tea”, originally means, more likely, “potion mate”. For this reason, mate invoked acute attention of the European medicine. And, most likely, therefore in due time mate was forbidden in the USA and some countries, and is still not authorized till now.
Original mate from coca leaves is perfectly brewed and its taste bears a strong resemblance to Chinese green tea. In St.-Petersburg in the 19th century, social lower strata had a certain business: to collect and dry sipped tea for resale. The reason was the following: coca can be brewed repeatedly, and, allegedly, each time tea from coca shows better properties.
When Jesuits were banished, the secret of preparation of the most popular tea was lost, and mate sharply ceased to be in demand. Nowadays under the name mate we drink “Holly Paraguayan”, and it is clear that the former commercial success of a trade brand will not have any success.
José Cardiel in his book “Missions in Paraguay” (1746) wrote: “… a potion of mate, having advantage to be the only [plant] in that soil and providing all South America”. In addition, a certain Antonio Ruiz de Montoya forbid the use of mate and every year burnt 14-15 thousand arrobas of the potion. Clearly, the point was not about innocent herbal tea.
ASH IN TEA
Here is the citation from a serious article about tea history: “On the path to the end user tea was often “diluted” by dealers-swindlers with ash, willow leaves, flowers and consequently the final volume of consumption still exceeded import for 20 percent”.
In practice, lime, potash and ash are the basic ingredients, helping to extrude alkaloids from plant stuff - both in coca, and in nasvay, and in betel. Tea was psychedelic stuff, that is why ash in tea was not swindle, but the sign of sufficiently developed technologies and accordingly of high quality product.
WHY ANISE VODKA WAS FORBIDDEN
Particularly coca leaves were mixed with the alkali named “Llipta”; usually it was lime and ashes. In Bolivia “Llipta” tasted like anise or licorice, and, perhaps, it was a part of some know-how. Anise has essential oils, and drugs from anise possess spasmolytic and anesthetic qualities. Here we have almost exact analogue of “ruff drink” (vodka with beer), only of psychedelic kind.
Later on, anise was borrowed by bootleggers: the first (present) absinthe liqueur contained not only specific alkaloids of wormwood, but also had anise flavor. All recipes of absinthe liqueur contain an anise. When absinthe liqueur was forbidden, the same happened with anise vodka. Mate, theriac, absinthe liqueur all belong to one technological school.
Scientists have proved that coca comes from Mexico. That is, all coca plantations in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia have artificial origin. Due to the fact that Aztecs did not have communication with Peru and Bolivia, there only one conclusion arises: mass coca plantings in the South America (close to silver mines) were settled by Europeans. One of the causes: at the turn of the 18th century (it’s hard to denote the date more precisely) the climate had considerably changed in Mexico, and traditional way of agriculture of Aztecs (in particular, floating beds - “chinampas”) destroyed. In such situation, Mexican coca as an agricultural branch had no future, and the production was moved.
Hypothesis is reasonable: at the beginning of the 19th century Europeans actively adapted agricultural crops to the conditions of those colonies which they owned. In 1830 Egyptian sugarcane was imported into Louisiana for the first time, in 1810 a long-fibred Peruvian cotton was imported into the USA for the first time, in 1815-1825 it was imported into Algeria and Egypt, and in 1850 - to India. Tomato, sunflower, corn, potato, tobacco, rubber tree did not start to adapt to new to them environmental conditions until 1820-1860 – these are statistic data.
The same organically happens with coca. Only in 1835 the first drawing of coca leaves occurs in an English magazine, and the first coca seeds were delivered to Kew Gardens only in 1869. Moreover, as any trade secret cannot be preserved throughout 366 years, acclimatization of Mexican coca to the climatic conditions of Peru and Bolivia can be easily dated to the 19th century and ascribed to the achievements of the European agricultural science.
There are even direct indication of the role of Europeans, dated 1691: “everything that an Indian needs … Paraguayan tea introduced by fathers for the purpose to disaccustom the population from alcohol”.
Officially Paraguay was destroyed twice, and psychodelic aura hangs over this country all time. It was Paraguay which dominated in delivery of cannabis products in the region, and it was not only canvas. It was from Paraguay, not from Peru or Bolivia, that Europe was imported with the best mate, and with destruction of the Jesuits state mate as a trade brand stopped existence. It was in Paraguay that a certain Antonio Ruiz de Montoya burnt 14-15 thousand arrobas of the potion every year, probably, grown without his permission or belonging to his competitors.
The official history allows even to date approximately the beginning of the development of this specific business. On December 7th, 1821 400 soldiers of the Paraguayan army invaded the territory of Argentina, burnt a tea plantation and captured botanist Aimé Bonpland. The scientist specialised in “erva-mate” tea cultivation that is why the next 9 years he continued his research in the Paraguayan captivity.
After some time the same destiny also waited Paraguayan tea plantations: a foreign army invaded the country, and the plantations stopped existing.
COCA FOR SMOKING
At the end of the nineteenth century, smoking of cigars and cigarettes from coca leaves was very popular in Philadelphia. In Colombia Indians had invented one more, a mediate mean of “smoking”: to snuff powder which was left after burning of coca leaves.
COCA AS SNUFF
Snuff it is snuff tobacco. It is known that this tobacco “clears the mind”, and this psychodelic effect is just typical for coca. In the picture there is a coca twig as it is, and also its image on a snuffbox.
The question is - whether only coca was snuffed under the tobacco name in the past. Was there tobacco too? The author has not found acknowledgement of this version; even in the 19th century neither in the States, nor in Cuba, in Turkey, snuff tobacco was not planted. There are data on factories cutting and packing snuff (in Virginia, P. Lorillard in New York and Zhukovskaya in Russia); there are no data on any plantations.
we would remind, as in 1566 Jean Willimane sent snuff tobacco as a gift to Catherine de Medicis, the queen of France, as a remedy for her headaches. Absolutely clear that was coca.
COCA AS ADDITIVE TO DRINKS
In 1863 Pope Leo XIII awarded a gold medal to the author of Vin Mariani wine - with cocaine additive of 6 mg per ounce. In practice, not cocaine was added, but extract from coca leaves; cocaine was still not invented in 1863, therefore the value “6 mg” is estimated according to modern measurement system. By 1870 Vin Mariani was on sale all over France and tried to compete with American wines, where the coca content was essentially higher. Export variant of Vin Mariani constrained even 7.2 mg of cocaine per ounce.
Here is the answer to a question why there are no statistical data concerning consumption of coca leaves: there was production, but there was no consumption. In practice, the consumption was rather obscure, in the form of derivative products: snuff, Peruvian tobacco, wine.
Pope Leo XIII, as it is possible to assume according to the award and his general interest in sale, was one of the coca leaves suppliers - its plantations were historically supervised by Vatican (see José Acosta's report).
In 1885 the inhabitant of Atlanta (Georgia) John S. Plimberton, adding coca and cocaine to various patent medicinal drugs, received a new medical product “Coca French Wine”.
In 1894 Coca-Cola started to be sold in bottles.
COCA AS ANESTHETIC
Indians initially knew about anesthetic properties of coca. THE CITATION: “... It is possible to feel intensive anesthetic effect on the mouth mucosa. This effect is well-known and is called “numbness””.
The European stomatologists tested this property only in 1884. It does not mean that coca was not known; it means that coca was called in reports under other names, for example, “Peruvian henbane” or “herb of Monsieur Prior”. Simply these names are historically recorded into the category of “tobacco synonyms”, and nobody can imagine that tobacco reference to medical products has any basis.
ETHER AND COCAINE
Ether is a necessary component for cocaine production - 17 litres per one kg of powder. The ether history dates back to 1840, and cocaine history - not earlier than 1859. The gap is too great. Pharmacists were obliged immediately to test ether properties for all known substances. I think, the problem is not in the history of cocaine, but in the history of ether production. Someone’s superiority was registered unreasonably.
GAP IN THE COCA DATA
In 1862 sir Clements Robert Brand ham in the book “Travels in Peru and India while superintending the collection of chinchona plants and seeds in South America, and their introduction into India” estimated annual harvesting of coca in the South America not less than 30 million pounds (13608 tons).
In the same 1862 the company Merck manufactured ¼ pound of cocaine, that is, the technology was ready, and the fact that for the following ¾ pound of cocaine Merck reported only in 1883, 21 year later, looks like concealment of the data, or attempt to stake out the priority 21 year prior the original technology creation.
Thus, the period of approximately 1862-1863 is a gap for coca trade data, and from 1880 to 1892 medical reference books and magazines simply reprint 20-30-year-old data. In addition, all publications about coca trade at this time are based only two texts.
Thus, either the company Merck added itself some age and solidity, or in the period of 1863-1884 the history coca was not as clear.
COCAINE BECAME GOODS
The first data on nose burn were fixed in 1910 when black workers in the USA started to receive cocaine from the employers - for working capacity increase. It was also a real date when cocaine entered the market.
COCAINE AND NAZISM
In 1931 Japan suddenly became the world leader in cocaine production that specifies the connection of the world drug-dealing with the nazi project.
WHAT WAS TRADED UNDER THE TEA NAME
Let's throw a glance at the facts which are basically clearly.
In India, China, Indochina and Central Asia people are used to drink bhang - tea from hashish. Tea in Japan and China is a religious rite, and its preparation in the ancient time much reminds hashish preparation. This tea grew from eyelashes of Buddha, thus Gautama Buddha said that he survived because he ate hemp pips (this translation can be inaccurate). Europe got pured hashish for the first time in 1840 and it was only for a close elite circle; it was not the goods for ordinary people.
America supplied mate to Europe, which was made according to their own recipe and from their raw material. This tea was an energetic, and it was, most likely, given to workers. Here is a citation, and, pay attention, they are all - tonics.
1851. In England the law is published considerably restricting wine, alcohol, beer, and other alcoholic drinks sale, but sustaining tea sale of coffee, chocolate, cocoa, lemonade, etc. This law also became famous as “the law about five o‘clock” since there was a point in it, which said that all employees, workers and seamen had necessarily to take a 15-minute break at 17.00 sharp for tea drinking.
Thus, tea had surprising dynamics of sales. In 1701 30 tons, and in a 3 year period in 1704 - 800.000 pounds were sold in England. It is 11-time (!) growth, characteristic just for drug. And if in 2009 Englishmen consumed on 2.5 kg of tea a year per capita, in 1897 it was 4 kg. For the past 112 years commodity properties of product have definitely changed.
The same is true for our region as well: in those areas of Russia and Ukraine, where people were not addicted to tea until the beginning of the 20th century (more precisely, until the Shanghai opium commission), they do not drink tea even now. They just do not see in it such commodity qualities, which are worth paying money for.
There is an interesting evidence of the French revolution times: students, having drunk coffee, made ugly rows and behave extremely aggressively. What was added into coffee is a big question.
Opiates were also a popular drink, mostly in a kind of tricl (theriac) – spirit solution, but one of parliamentary maters managed to stir opium with coffee. Is it possible to mix opium with tea? Judging by the races of “tea clippers”, which begun almost simultaneously with the Law about five o‘clock, it is a possible fact.
Pay attention, we do not know any races concerning delivery of precious opium or coca. Opium at the price of 3 gold guineas per pound did not invoke any agiotage, but tea at the price of 1 shilling per the same pound was delivered in a competitive hush. Here we have a latent consumption of drugs: that is, what was called as tea in the history of mankind, after processing with the use of necessary ingredients, was not tea any more.
VOLUME OF LATENT OPIATE CONSUMPTION
In such situation, the basic research problem of the historical science: to find out the volume of the latent consumption of drugs. In the case of opium this problem can be solved.
The documentary production maximum is falls on 1907: 41622 tons (35364 in China, nearby 6000 in India and 258 in Turkey). It is necessary to find out, how many standard drug doses there are in this volume, here again we will find help in the report of the Russian traveler N.N. Miklucho-Maclay who smoking opium in a usual Chinese opium den and noticed that the size of one smoking dose is comparable with a millet seed.
A millet seed has the diameter of 1-2 mm. The usual density of vegetative resins is about 1/sm3. It means that the single dose can be from 4 to 14 mg. Considering that scientific selection at the time of Miklucho-Maclay was so developed, a millet seed could be of smaller size so the weight of a dose is hardly more than 4.5 mg. We will assume it as 5 mg.
It means that in China in 1907, 7.1 trillion doses were produced and in the total world amount was 8.3 trillion doses. This quantity was sufficient enough for each person living then on the earth, (1.65 billion in 1900, including babies) daily receiving almost 14 doses (the addict of that time, if he was not limited, could take 25 doses). If we exclude small children, each inhabitant of our planet could take full daily drug dose.
These figures can be reduced with more accurate recalculation, for example, if to consider a millet seed of a bigger size. As we remember, in 1906 India manufactured only 5100 tons of stuff, that is why in 1907 it could hardly increase the production to the averaged here figures of 6000 tons, however it does not change the whole picture.
DISAPPEARING CONSUMER OPIATES
In the official statistics for 1907 these 41622 tons of opium were only manufactured, but were not sold. At first, we will present a graph with the general figures. Already here it is clear that 1880 was the last date when the production is approximately equal to the consumption. Officially, opium was imported into China where it was entirely consumed.
Now is the same, but is more detailed - for the most interesting period.
Any country (including China) after the Shanghai opium conference of 1909 did not take responsibility for buying up of produced opium. Data on the fnal consumer simply disappear – just because opium consumption became mainly hidden: in tea, tobacco, wine or even cookies.
There was a version that all opium were smoked by the Chinese, but data on the number of addicts of China are unpersuasive. They say in 1907 there were already 25 million of drug addicts, however Mao, having come to power, did not find more than 10 million addicted. Besides, even 25 million of drug addicts were not able to smoke the opium amount, sufficient for all population of the planet.
In 1907 China manufactured opium for 442 million gold Russian roubles (the state budget at this period was 225 million roubles). To admit the fact that all this opium was smoked in China by those 10 million addicts (which were reported by Mao), means that Chinese coolie could afford to spend on his own 44.2 gold roubles, and the government of China annually wasted two state budgets.
Reports of Drugs and Criminality Control of the United Nations
Clements Robert Markham (1862) “Travels in Peru and India while superintending the collection of chinchona plants and seeds in South America, and their introduction into India”
The history of tobacco in turkey - Diplomatic Observer (Türkiye)
Nikolay Nikolaevich Miklucho-Maclay “Opium smoking trial” (Physiological note)
Энциклопедический словарь Брокгауза и Ефрона
Juan Antonio Llorente “The History of the Inquisition of Spain”
Chronological database HistoryOrb
Wikipedia (Russia, Italy, France, England)
Богданов И. Дым отечества, или Краткая история табакокурения. М.: Новое литературное обозрение, 2007
Richard Davenport-Hines “The Pursuit of Oblivion: A global history of narcotics 1500–2000”
Субботин, Андрей Павлович (1852–1906). Чай и чайная торговля в России и других государствах : производство, потребление и распределение чая / сост. А.П.Субботин. — Санкт-Петербург : А.Г.Кузнецов, 1892. — 706 с. разд. паг.,  л. ил., карт. : табл.; 27 см.
BASIC NEW GOODS
To understand, where it was possible to flog such great quantity of opiates, it is necessary to see, which new goods occurred around 1880. And such new goods were cigars and cigarettes. In 1881, American James Bonsack presented a cigarette machine that can work for 48 persons, and in 1883 American Oscar Hammerstien invented the car for cigar manufacturing.
Technical refinement. Tobacco manufactures gave an official definition: the goods were nicotine, and a cigarette, a bar of chewing tobacco or snuff powder were only carriers for active stuff. Thus, the basic active substance was not necessarily clear: absinthe liqueur had the anise flavor, but its essential oils played only auxiliary role; the main role belonged to wormwood alkaloids.
The same situation was with tobacco. The Dutch mixture “madac” consisted of tobacco and opium; this mixture addicted the Chinese to opium. Technologies of the 19th centuries allowed introducing psychoactive substances, for example, at the fermentation stage when it is essential to add water in tobacco. Such additives are called “sauce” in the slang of tobacco manufactures, and it is necessary to remind that the USA (the largest producer of tobacco products) did not sign the Frame agreement of 2012 obliging manufactures to disclose the composition of these additives to tobacco. No, we do not think that opium is added now, but in the limits of the conception of 1881-1883, - when cigars and cigarettes were made by machines, it was a legal ordinary technological operation.
Well, and as manufacturing of any “sauces” or extracts developed in mainstream, one can be sure: opium impregnated everything that got into human’s lungs or stomach. Otherwise such figures can not to be explainable.
THE MAIN ARGUMENT
In 1881, synchronously with the invention of the cigarette machine James Buchanan aka Buc Duke began his cigarette production business. By 1911 Buc Duke managed to conquer 92 % of the world tobacco market.
Both dates presented here are interesting: around 1881 the figures of opium production and consumption started to diverge quickly and by 1911 the difference reached its maximum, and the data concerning opium production simply disappeared - till the end of the 20th century. There is simply no better period for the latent opium consumption in the history.
In addition, it is necessary to understand that Buc Duke battled for the product market not with nuns, - there are no nuns in the tobacco business, - and to reach the share of 92 % was possible only in case of crucial advantage. Judging by the disappeared statistics of opium sales, Buc obtained such advantage.
As a whole, the general dynamics of cigarette consumption growth correlates with the dynamics of opium production growth in China.
ABOUT OPIUM DENS INTERDICTION
Around 1878-1879 the 15-year-old political campaign against opium dens in the USA began. It more resembled clearing the road for Buc Duke - in fact, the main competitors in the new way of psychoactive substances promotion were eliminated.
It seems that local authorities in the USA perfectly realized, what they dealt with.
1900 Washington, Tennessee, Iowa and Northern Dakota forbid cigarettes
1900 Supreme Court of the USA supported the resolution of state Tennessee on cigarettes ban.
1905 Tobacco was taken from the official list of drugs. It was carried out in exchange for the voices of the tobacco lobby.
1907 Owners of the companies refuse to employ smokers for the first time.
1909 15 states enacted laws forbidding sale of cigarettes
... Opioid analgetics and antidepressants invoking addiction come into the list of three most often written out medicines to the USA.
... For a year 15 thousand Americans die from analgetics overdose - more than heroin and cocaine together could cause.
… The largest importer of opium for today is the USA.
Our conclusion: the population of the USA addicted to opiates in 1881-1909 still cannot give it up.
ROLE OF THE SHANGHAI COMMISSION
There is a regularity: assets are in large quantities transferred into shadow approximately seven years before the beginning of a large war. Therefore 7 years after the Black Monday of 1929 World War II of 1936 began. Well, and before 1914 there was the crisis of 1907 which was followed with the Shanghai commission of 1909, so successful for semilegal business owners. Fighters for morals suspiciously often serve interests of the most odious political powers, - so it happened in Shanghai.
MONEY AS THE MISSING LINK
So that the hypothesis stated above about a large-scale stream of opium from China in the USA looked authentic, there is one link is missing - a return flow of enormous sums of money. And this link exists.
About that time, there were so-called “confidential loan securities of the USA of 1934”. The USA offered Chiang Kai-shek such service, as storage of the Chinese gold and other values. Chiang Kai-shek received loan securities for the sum of 25 billion dollars. The question is, where China could get so much “gold and other values”? It is necessary to remind that after defeat in the war of 1900 China paid contributions for many years, in particular, to Soviet Union until 1930. China could not pay all some at once. But suddenly - 25 billion dollars transferred to the USA.
Let’s estimate the cost of opium produced in China.
From the statistics resulted in Brockhaus and Efron's dictionary it follows:
- the opium price in 1895-1896 was 18.5 – 20.3 rupees per 1 kg;
- 1 rupee of 1897-1898 cost 63.7 copecks;
- in the end of the 19th century 1 kg of opium cost 12.49 roubles;
- 35370 tons of opium in 1906 cost about 442 million rubles;
- 1 dollar was equal to 1.31 metal roubles;
- cost of the Chinese opium in 1906 was 337 million dollars;
- cost of the Chinese opium in 1934 was 147 million dollars;
- estimated cost of the Chinese opium from 1906 to 1949 - 10-15 billion dollars.
Scope of this hypothetical exchange (25 billion in the form of loan securities for 10-15 billion in the form of opium) are already comparable. Let’s add here a price rise of 1937 in 3-4 times and definitely increased requirement in opiates during the war, so 25 billion will not seem an excessive sum.
It is curious that edition time of the so-called “confidential loan securities of the USA of 1934” coincides with the last statistical data about opium production in China - 1934, 15500 tons.
Chiang Kai-shek was not a casual figure for opium trade. Its ancestor was known for Confucius, and there is a steady version that “Confucius” was a literary pseudonym of Jesuit Matteo Ricci idolized in China. The opium traffic remained in the same hands. Influence of Jesuits in China so, and opium as well, is admitted, at least, before the war China in 1900.
1906-1934 – is the key period in the history of drug mafia formation, and China was the key country in this business.
Officially reported 10 million addicts (1949) from 583 million total population (census of 1953) present 1.7 %. It means that all data about the number of addicts till 1949 (for example, 27 % of all adult population in 1906) were false and intended to hide where China supplied opium. The same object was pursued by the doubtful data concerning the amount of individual consumption of opium. So, they claimed that one addict smoked 3 kg of opium a year, that is, all opium registered in China in 1906 (35370 tons) could be all smoked by 12 million addicts that approximately presents convenient 27 % part of adult population in 1906. The experiment of the Russian traveler N.N. Miklucho-Maclay who smoked opium in China (under supervision of the doctor) and fixed the report, denied these estimations. Moreover, we will repeat our train of thought: If an average drug addict (it is clear that we talk about a poor social stratum) smoked 3 kg of opium each of them annually spent for it 37.47 gold roubles.
In 1949 there was reorientation of China to the USSR, so the function of China on the opium deliveries market was taken by Burma which had just received freedom, where Kuomintang immediately moved, and the opium “Gold triangle” appeared.
OPIUM AS THE PAYMENT EQUIVALENT
In 1918 when in the situation of the Civil War the money supply from Russia was interrupted, the Council of Peoples Commissars of Zhetysu (Semirechye) – a historical area in Kazakhstan - made a decision to print its own banknotes. It is a fact, the security for them was not gold (there just was none), but the opium stored in cellars of the State bank of Verny (now - Almaty). Issued banknotes were removed from circulation at the end of 1919.
It is one of the major functions of opium. Universal payment equivalents - salt, silver, opium - are good for security of payment obligations in a force majeure situation, and in practice, they are required in little quantity, no more, than a share of the total amount of broke down deals. However, payment equivalents carry out a standard role, and, manipulating the prices for opium serves as a tool for regulation of market prices as a whole.
Gross domestic product of Russia is estimated as $1.5 trillion (it is possible to caclate differently, but it does not change the order of figures), and real gold in storerooms is $for 90 billion that compounds 6 % from domestic product. For functioning of economy of it sufficiently enough. Moreover, the price of these 6 % of etalon goods predetermines the price of all other mass of commodities.
No opium holder would not rush to buy up the goods that have fallen in price after a collapse; it is done in a different way - through loans: the higher the price, the higher the risks are, the rate of interest on credit is higher too. Money is lend out in one price situation, and the credit is withdrawn - in the other. Probably, therefore Francis Baring, the founder of the Barings Bank lending money to the largest states, from 1779 till 1810 held the post of the governor of the English East Indian company seven times (12). Total result: when the British, French, Austrian, Prussian and Russian representatives met at the Viennese congress in 1815 for preparation of the peace treaty for Europe, all of them agreed that the Barings Bank had become the sixth great European power, and without its help, the peace treaty would not have any long-term effect.
Historians strongly hesitate to disclose the scale of drug dealing in the past and participation in it of authoritative figures, and, in our opinion, absolutely in vain.
Holders of payment equivalents (opium, as well) are intimately connected with the loan capital. Payment equivalents are the working mechanism on control in the rate of interest on credit, primarily, the state credits. Struggle for payment equivalents predetermines success of struggle for credit marketing outlets, in fact - for influence on the states.
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